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Linguistics is the science of language as a universal characteristic of human beings. Linguistic instruction in the master's programme Cultural Studies of the Middle East focuses primarily on the methods of empirical linguistics: language documentation, variationist sociolinguistics, and language typology.

The practical skills of documentary linguistics are indispensable for approaching the theoretically oriented questions raised by sociolinguistics and language typology. For this reason, students are trained in methods that will allow them to independently collect and evaluate natural language data, and subsequently present their results within the scope of varied theoretical frameworks.

Students are also given opportunity to acquire or deepen proficiency in at least one language of the Middle East.

Linguistic research at the University of Bamberg places special emphasis on Turkic languages such as Turkish and Azeri, and Iranian languages like Persian, Zazaki, and Balochi. Unique in Germany is the focus on Kurdish, one of the world's largest minority languages.

Notably, instruction in linguistics is provided entirely in English: ideal preparation for a career in linguistic research.